Comprehensive review of coding and computer programming!
What Does Learning to Code Mean?
Coding is Computer Programing. It’s learning a particular Programming Language or Assembly Language made up of letters, symbols and numbers that you type in using a keyboard. You are basically converting language into code that will be used to communicate to machines, so that the Machines perform particular functions that you need to have done, that will ultimately help you to accomplish a particular goal. Learning code will make you bilingual.
Coding in social sciences is an analytical process in which data, in both quantitative form (such as questionnaires results) or qualitative (such as interview transcripts) is categorized to facilitate analysis. Coding means the transformation of data into a form understandable by computer software. Reusability – Accessibility – Usability.
Computer Knowledge – Command Line Interface
A computer program is a detailed step set of instructions that can be interpreted and carried out by a Computer. A computer is a machine that can quickly and accurately follow (carry out, execute) the detailed step-by-step set of instructions in a computer program. Computer programmers design, write, and test computer programs—so they are deeply involved in doing computational thinking. It’s like Morse Code has come full circle, from dot dash, to on or off, zero’s and ones.
Levels of Computer Programming Languages
Machine Code is lowest possible level at which you can program a computer. Consisting of strings of 1’s and 0’s, and stored as binary numbers. The main problem with using machine code directly is that it’s very easy to make a mistake, and very hard to find it once you realize the mistake has been made. Machine Code is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer’s central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions. DNA – Code.
I/O is used to describe any program, operation or device that transfers data to or from a computer and to or from a peripheral device. Every transfer is an output from one device and an input into another. I/O is short for input/output (pronounced “eye-oh”). Transistors – PLC.
BIOS is an acronym for Basic Input / Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the Booting Process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for Operating Systems and Programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer’s system board, and it is the first software to run when powered on. The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. Originally proprietary to the IBM PC, the BIOS has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems. The interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard. The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components, and loads a boot loader from a mass memory device which then initializes an operating system. In the era of MS-DOS, the BIOS provided a hardware abstraction layer for the keyboard, display, and other input/output (I/O) devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS after loading, instead accessing the hardware components directly. Most BIOS implementations are specifically designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary system chipset.
Originally, BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard. This allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it also creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails can brick the motherboard permanently, unless the system includes some form of backup for this case. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a successor to BIOS, aiming to address its technical shortcomings. BIOS a set of computer instructions in firmware which control input and output operations. The Bios is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer’s system board, and it is the first software to run when powered on. The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. Originally proprietary to the IBM PC, the BIOS has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems. The interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard. The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components, and loads a boot loader from a mass memory device which then initializes an operating system. In the era of MS-DOS, the BIOS provided a hardware abstraction layer for the keyboard, display, and other input/output (I/O) devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS after loading, instead accessing the hardware components directly. Most BIOS implementations are specifically designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary system chipset. Originally, BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard. This allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it also creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails can brick the motherboard permanently, unless the system includes some form of backup for this case.
Assembly Language is nothing more than a symbolic representation of machine code, which also allows symbolic designation of memory locations. Thus, an instruction to add the contents of a memory location to an internal CPU register called the accumulator might be add a number instead of a string of binary digits (bits). No matter how close assembly language is to machine code, the computer still cannot understand it. The assembly-language program must be translated into machine code by a separate program called an assembler. The assembler program recognizes the character strings that make up the symbolic names of the various machine operations, and substitutes the required machine code for each instruction. At the same time, it also calculates the required address in memory for each symbolic name of a memory location, and substitutes those addresses for the names. The final result is a machine-language program that can run on its own at any time; the assembler and the assembly-language program are no longer needed. To help distinguish between the “before” and “after” versions of the program, the original assembly-language program is also known as the source code, while the final machine-language program is designated the object code. If an assembly-language program needs to be changed or corrected, it is necessary to make the changes to the source code and then re-assemble it to create a new object program. Assembly Language is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture’s machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture.
High-Level Language is a programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Such languages are considered high-level because they are closer to human languages and further from machine languages.
Source Code is any collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by a compiler program into low-level machine code understood by the computer.
Visual Programming Language is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming) are based on the idea of “boxes and arrows”, where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations. Visual Knowledge.
Compiled Language are the high-level equivalent of assembly language. Each instruction in the compiler language can correspond to many machine instructions. Once the program has been written, it is translated to the equivalent machine code by a program called a compiler. Once the program has been compiled, the resulting machine code is saved separately, and can be run on its own at any time. As with assembly-language programs, updating or correcting a compiled program requires that the original (source) program be modified appropriately and then recompiled to form a new machine-language (object) program. Typically, the compiled machine code is less efficient than the code produced when using assembly language. This means that it runs a bit more slowly and uses a bit more memory than the equivalent assembled program. To offset this drawback, however, we also have the fact that it takes much less time to develop a compiler-language program, so it can be ready to go sooner than the assembly-language program. Compiled Language translators that generate machine code from source code, and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place. Operating Systems.
Interpreter Language, like a compiler language, is considered to be high level. However, it operates in a totally different manner from a compiler language. Rather, the interpreter program resides in memory, and directly executes the high-level program without preliminary translation to machine code. This use of an interpreter program to directly execute the user’s program has both advantages and disadvantages. The primary advantage is that you can run the program to test its operation, make a few changes, and run it again directly. There is no need to recompile because no new machine code is ever produced. This can enormously speed up the development and testing process. On the down side, this arrangement requires that both the interpreter and the user’s program reside in memory at the same time. In addition, because the interpreter has to scan the user’s program one line at a time and execute internal portions of itself in response, execution of an interpreted program is much slower than for a compiled program. Interpreter computer program directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution: parse the source code and perform its behavior directly. translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and immediately execute this. explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system.
There is only one programming language that any computer can actually understand and execute: its own native binary machine code. This is the lowest possible level of language in which it is possible to write a computer program. All other languages are said to be high level or low level according to how closely they can be said to resemble machine code. In this context, a low-level language corresponds closely to machine code, so that a single low-level language instruction translates to a single machine-language instruction. A high-level language instruction typically translates into a series of machine-language instructions. Low-Level Programming Languages have the advantage that they can be written to take advantage of any peculiarities in the architecture of the central processing unit (CPU) which is the “brain” of any computer. Thus, a program written in a low-level language can be extremely efficient, making optimum use of both computer memory and processing time. However, to write a low-level program takes a substantial amount of time, as well as a clear understanding of the inner workings of the processor itself. Therefore, low-level programming is typically used only for very small programs, or for segments of code that are highly critical and must run as efficiently as possible. High-level languages permit faster development of large programs. The final program as executed by the computer is not as efficient, but the savings in programmer time generally far outweigh the inefficiencies of the finished product. This is because the cost of writing a program is nearly constant for each line of code, regardless of the language. Thus, a high-level language where each line of code translates to 10 machine instructions costs only one tenth as much in program development as a low-level language where each line of code represents only a single machine instruction.
Scripting Language is a programming language that supports scripts; programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled).
Conditional Probability is a measure of the probability of an event given that (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence) another event has occurred. If the event of interest is A and the event B is known or assumed to have occurred, “the conditional probability of A given B”, or “the probability of A under the condition B”, is usually written as P(A|B), or sometimes PB(A). For example, the probability that any given person has a cough on any given day may be only 5%. But if we know or assume that the person has a cold, then they are much more likely to be coughing. The conditional probability of coughing given that you have a cold might be a much higher 75%.
Transaction Processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions. Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it can never be only partially complete. Atomic Transaction.
Relevance Logic is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family of substructural or modal logics. (It is generally, but not universally, called relevant logic by Australian logicians, and relevance logic by other English-speaking logicians.) Relevance logic aims to capture aspects of implication that are ignored by the “material implication” operator in classical truth-functional logic, namely the notion of relevance between antecedent and conditional of a true implication. This idea is not new: C. I. Lewis was led to invent modal logic, and specifically strict implication, on the grounds that classical logic grants paradoxes of material implication such as the principle that a falsehood implies any proposition. Hence “if I’m a donkey, then two and two is four” is true when translated as a material implication, yet it seems intuitively false since a true implication must tie the antecedent and consequent together by some notion of relevance. And whether or not I’m a donkey seems in no way relevant to whether two and two is four.
Algorithms – Apps
Multitier Architecture is a client–server architecture in which presentation, application processing, and data management functions are physically separated. The most widespread use of multitier architecture is the three-tier architecture.
Computer Architecture – Architecture (engineering)
Software – Hardware – Networks
Information Management – Knowledge Management
Computer Multitasking – Variables
Virtualization – Computer Generated Imagery
Languages used in Computer Programming
Programming Language is a formal computer language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.
Dynamic Language is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime, execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation. These behaviors could include extension of the program, by adding new code, by extending objects and definitions, or by modifying the type system. Although similar behaviors can be emulated in nearly any language, with varying degrees of difficulty, complexity and performance costs, dynamic languages provide direct tools to make use of them. Many of these features were first implemented as native features in the Lisp programming language.
Programming Paradigm is a way to classify programming languages based on the features of various programming languages. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigm. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects, or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping code into units along with the state that is modified by the code. Yet others are concerned mainly with the style of syntax and grammar. Common programming paradigms include: Imperative which allows side effects, functional which disallows side effects, declarative which does not state the order in which operations execute, object-oriented which groups code together with the state the code modifies, procedural which groups code into functions, logic which has a particular style of execution model coupled to a particular style of syntax and grammar, and symbolic programming which has a particular style of syntax and grammar. Redundancy.
Formal Speaking Languages
C programming language is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.
C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation.
C# is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It was the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems, and their respective application programming interfaces (APIs) Cocoa and Cocoa Touch prior to the introduction of Swift.
LPC is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed originally by Lars Pensjö to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes, and to its evolution into the language Pike.
Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. It is most commonly used in the design and verification of digital circuits at the register-transfer level of abstraction. It is also used in the verification of analog circuits and mixed-signal circuits, as well as in the design of genetic circuits.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997.
Python is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. An interpreted language, Python has a design philosophy which emphasizes code readability (notably using whitespace indentation to delimit code blocks rather than curly braces or keywords), and a syntax which allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than possible in languages such as C++ or Java. The language provides constructs intended to enable writing clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional programming, and procedural styles. It has a large and comprehensive standard library. Python interpreters are available for many operating systems, allowing Python code to run on a wide variety of systems. CPython, the reference implementation of Python, is open source software and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its variant implementations. CPython is managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation.
PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be embedded into HTML or HTML5 code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface (CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications. The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine——!>, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, leaving the canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Its name is a combination of “My”, the name of co-founder Michael Widenius’ daughter, and “SQL”, the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation. For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. MySQL is a central component of the LAMP open-source web application software stack (and other “AMP” stacks). LAMP is an acronym for “Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python”. Applications that use the MySQL database include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, MyBB, and Drupal. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including Google (though not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube. Here are more resource links:
- Build Dynamic Applications Using PHP & MySQL
- Advance PHP and MySQL Web Development Course
- Comprehensive look at how Linux Data Structures work
- Comprehensive list of all special purpose Linux distributions
- Comprehensive list of all secure Linux distributions for cybersecurity professionals
- Comprehensive Review of How Linux File and Directory System Works
- —->SQL Coding and Database Management
- Introduction to Linux and Shell programming
- Linux System Administration
BASIC an acronym for “Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code”, is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language to underpin the “new world” of computing exemplified by “human–computer symbiosis.” It was designed and created in part for educational use, more so for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group (LRG) of Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, Ted Kaehler, Scott Wallace, and others during the 1970s. The language was first generally released as Smalltalk-80. Smalltalk-like languages are in continuing active development and have gathered loyal communities of users around them. ANSI Smalltalk was ratified in 1998 and represents the standard version of Smalltalk.
Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation. Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year. Lisp has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme.
D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
Go is a free and open source programming language created at Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. It is a compiled, statically typed language in the tradition of Algol and C, with garbage collection, limited structural typing, memory safety features and CSP-style concurrent programming features added.
Rust is a general purpose programming language sponsored by Mozilla Research. It is designed to be a “safe, concurrent, practical language”, supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms. Rust is syntactically similar to C++, but is designed for better memory safety while maintaining performance. Rust is open source software. The design of the language has been refined through the experiences of writing the Servo web browser layout engine and the Rust compiler. A large portion of current commits to the project are from community members. Rust won first place for “most loved programming language” in the Stack Overflow Developer Survey in 2016 and 2017.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in language support for design-by-contract, extremely strong typing, explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, protected objects, and non-determinism. Ada improves code safety and maintainability by using the compiler to find errors in favor of runtime errors. Ada is an international standard; the current version (known as Ada 2012) is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012.
Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. It was designed at Bell Labs by Sean Dorward, Phil Winterbottom, and Rob Pike. The Limbo compiler generates architecture-independent object code which is then interpreted by the Dis virtual machine or compiled just before runtime to improve performance. Therefore all Limbo applications are completely portable across all Inferno platforms. Limbo’s approach to concurrency was inspired by Hoare’s Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP), as implemented and amended in Pike’s earlier Newsqueak language and Winterbottom’s Alef.bib.
Markup Language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the “marking up” of paper manuscripts, i.e., the revision instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue pencil on authors’ manuscripts.
Swift Playgrounds is a new way to learn to code with Swift on iPad. Swift Playgrounds is a revolutionary iPad app that helps you learn and explore coding in Swift, the same powerful language used to create world-class apps for the App Store.
Each programing language has it own set of rules, and each language has it’s own area of input, and each language has its own capabilities and functions. So knowing what you want to accomplish will help you decide what code or programming language you need to learn. Learning computer programming languages is easier then any other time in history, especially if you can get online and access all the free educational material. Don’t believe all the media hype that’s telling kids that they need to learn computer code, because those people are morons. There’s more important knowledge to learn first.
Best Coding Language to Learn
Computer Programming Contest
Top Coder technical competitions helping real world organizations solve real world problems.
Competitive Programming is a mind sport usually held over the Internet or a local network, involving participants trying to program according to provided specifications. Contestants are referred to as sport programmers.
Designing a Programming System for understanding Program
Code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, voltage, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a channel or storage in a medium.
Encoding is the activity of converting data or information into code. Unicode (symbols) – Source Code.
Binary Code represents text or computer processor instructions using the binary number system’s two binary digits, 0 and 1. The binary code assigns a bit string to each symbol or instruction. For example, a binary string of eight binary digits (bits) can represent any of 256 possible values and can therefore correspond to a variety of different symbols, letters or instructions.
Bit is a basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. These values are most commonly represented as either a 0 and 1.
Byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. (01100101).
Megabyte is one million bytes of information. (8 Million Bits).
IOPS Input/Output Operations Per Second which describes the performance characteristics of any storage device.
Assignment sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name.
Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm. It uses the structural conventions of a normal programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are essential for machine understanding of the algorithm, such as variable declarations, system-specific code and some subroutines. The programming language is augmented with natural language description details, where convenient, or with compact mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is an efficient and environment-independent description of the key principles of an algorithm. It is commonly used in textbooks and scientific publications that are documenting various algorithms, and also in planning of computer program development, for sketching out the structure of the program before the actual coding takes place. No standard for pseudocode syntax exists, as a program in pseudocode is not an executable program. Pseudocode resembles, but should not be confused with, skeleton programs which can be compiled without errors. Flowcharts, drakon-charts and Unified Modeling Language (UML) charts can be thought of as a graphical alternative to pseudocode, but are more spacious on paper. Languages such as HAGGIS bridge the gap between pseudocode and code written in programming languages. Its main use is to introduce students to high level languages through use of this hybrid language.
Branch in computer science is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.[a] Branch (or branching, branched) may also refer to the act of switching execution to a different instruction sequence as a result of executing a branch instruction. Branch instructions are used to implement control flow in program loops and conditionals (i.e., executing a particular sequence of instructions only if certain conditions are satisfied). A branch instruction can be either an unconditional branch, which always results in branching, or a conditional branch, which may or may not cause branching depending on some condition. Also, depending on how it specifies the address of the new instruction sequence (the “target” address), a branch instruction is generally classified as direct, indirect or relative, meaning that the instruction contains the target address, or it specifies where the target address is to be found (e.g., a register or memory location), or it specifies the difference between the current and target addresses.
Instruction Set Architecture is an abstract model of a computer. It is also referred to as architecture or computer architecture. A realization of an ISA is called an implementation. An ISA permits multiple implementations that may vary in performance, physical size, and monetary cost (among other things); because the ISA serves as the interface between software and hardware. Software that has been written for an ISA can run on different implementations of the same ISA. This has enabled binary compatibility between different generations of computers to be easily achieved, and the development of computer families. Both of these developments have helped to lower the cost of computers and to increase their applicability. For these reasons, the ISA is one of the most important abstractions in computing today.
Control Flow is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. The emphasis on explicit control flow distinguishes an imperative programming language from a declarative programming language. Within an imperative programming language, a control flow statement is a statement, the execution of which results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths to follow. For non-strict functional languages, functions and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are usually not termed control flow statements. A set of statements is in turn generally structured as a block, which in addition to grouping, also defines a lexical scope. Interrupts and signals are low-level mechanisms that can alter the flow of control in a way similar to a subroutine, but usually occur as a response to some external stimulus or event (that can occur asynchronously), rather than execution of an in-line control flow statement. At the level of machine language or assembly language, control flow instructions usually work by altering the program counter. For some central processing units (CPUs), the only control flow instructions available are conditional or unconditional branch instructions, also termed jumps.
Declaration in computer programming is a language construct that specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) “means”. Declarations are most commonly used for functions, variables, constants, and classes, but can also be used for other entities such as enumerations and type definitions. Beyond the name (the identifier itself) and the kind of entity (function, variable, etc.), declarations typically specify the data type (for variables and constants), or the type signature (for functions); types may also include dimensions, such as for arrays. A declaration is used to announce the existence of the entity to the compiler; this is important in those strongly typed languages that require functions, variables, and constants, and their types to be specified with a declaration before use, and is used in forward declaration. The term “declaration” is frequently contrasted with the term “definition”, but meaning and usage varies significantly between languages; see below. Declarations are particularly prominent in languages in the ALGOL tradition, including the BCPL family, most prominently C and C++, and also Pascal. Java uses the term “declaration”, though Java does not have separate declarations and definitions.
Language Construct is a syntactically allowable part of a program that may be formed from one or more lexical tokens in accordance with the rules of a programming language. In simpler terms, it is the syntax/way a programming language is written.
Subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed. Subprograms may be defined within programs, or separately in libraries that can be used by many programs. In different programming languages, a subroutine may be called a procedure, a function, a routine, a method, or a subprogram. The generic term callable unit is sometimes used. The name subprogram suggests a subroutine behaves in much the same way as a computer program that is used as one step in a larger program or another subprogram. A subroutine is often coded so that it can be started several times and from several places during one execution of the program, including from other subroutines, and then branch back (return) to the next instruction after the call, once the subroutine’s task is done. The idea of a subroutine was initially conceived by John Mauchly during his work on ENIAC, and recorded in a Harvard symposium in January of 1947 entitled ‘Preparation of Problems for EDVAC-type Machines’. Maurice Wilkes, David Wheeler, and Stanley Gill are generally credited with the formal invention of this concept, which they termed a closed subroutine, contrasted with an open subroutine or macro. Subroutines are a powerful programming tool, and the syntax of many programming languages includes support for writing and using them. Judicious use of subroutines (for example, through the structured programming approach) will often substantially reduce the cost of developing and maintaining a large program, while increasing its quality and reliability. Subroutines, often collected into libraries, are an important mechanism for sharing and trading software. The discipline of object-oriented programming is based on objects and methods (which are subroutines attached to these objects or object classes).In the compiling method called threaded code, the executable program is basically a sequence of subroutine calls.
Character Encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of an encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. Character set, character map, codeset and code page are related, but not identical, terms.
Software Bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed “Debugging” and often uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, and since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to also deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program’s source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that seriously interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy (defective). Bugs can trigger errors that may have ripple effects. Bugs may have subtle effects or cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges. Buggy code usually means that code writing used poor coding practices and/or poor testing practices such that their code is likely to have a greater-than-average number of bugs and/or is difficult to maintain without introducing bugs.
How Voltage is used as a Language
Think of a mechanical computer. You press a lever, some gears turn, and then there’s an output. In an electrical computer, you press a key on a keyboard, that changes the voltage from 0 (ground) to something like 5v. That then goes through some transistors (switches) that do various things until you end up seeing a letter on the screen. That letter is again represented by voltages which are being applied to the pixel. It’s hard to explain because there are so many layers, but basically some sort of electrical signal goes into a series of switches which then change millions of things resulting in an output. All of these switches are operating on a change in voltage between two references (usually ground and then 1.5, 3.3, 5, or some other voltage). Here’s another example: Marble adding machine (youtube) – Think of the little levers being left as ground and right as some voltage like 5v. Those are the ones and zeroes. Zeroes and ones are not converted to physical voltages. They are physical voltages, or more precisely open or closed electrical circuits. Astute use of electrical properties and circuitries gives those open or closed circuits various incarnations, like the flickering of a LED, the magnetization of a small portion of a tape, and so on. Code is converted from conceptual form to a voltage level the instant the programmer presses a key. The keypress is registered as a change in voltage inside the keyboard, and every further interaction will be electronic. Remember, the actual data stored on the system is electronic. When you open a file in a hex editor to look at the bits the computer is using the graphics card and the monitor to convert the electronic bits back into Symbols for you to look at. If something is in RAM, its stored as voltages. How does a computer understand the language? Consider a really basic microprocessor. It has 8 storage places, and can add or invert numbers within them. For the assembly command: (ADD R3 R2 R1). We are trying to say R3 = R2+R1. In machine code, this might look like: (1 011 010 001). This gets sent on a 10 bit bus (just 10 wires tied together) from the program register (where commands are stored) to the processor. The first bit gets split off from the rest and gets set as the control bit of an 9 bit 2:1 multiplexer. This sends the other bits to the addition Circuitry. The addition circuitry can retrieve the values from the register, perform the addition (look up a ripple carry Adder for more information), and store the result in another register.
Now imagine this implemented with 100 different functions, 64 bit instructions, and you start to get close to how Processors today operate. You write a program, it compiles into machine code and you run it, which mean OS loads it into memory from a drive and jumps the CPU to a starting point of your program. Now you have machine code as a series of bits in RAM that CPU can access. Reading the memory ends up setting memory bus lines to high or low states. Lines, along with the clock signal, are connected to CPU, where insanely complex set of electronic logic changes state according to new input – which can entail triggering new RAM reads (including memory containing more instructions) and writes. How line signals get manipulated in a CPU is a broad topic. Look up Logic Gates and then try wrapping your head around clocked memory cell (J/K flip flop). From these, more complex stuff like Adders can be constructed. The chip has some supply voltage made available to it, and at each stage of computation, either that voltage is switched on or off. And that switching is ultimately controlled by the instructions of the program, combinational logic works, muxes, demuxes, latches, clocks, etc. The full adder can be implemented in five logic gates, and a ripple carry adder capable of adding values wider than a single bit can be built from multiple full Adders. The ones and zeroes are physical voltages. There’s no “conversion” from one to the other. You can analyze a digital circuit in terms of 1s and 0s or in terms of voltages depending on which model is more useful at the time. 1s and 0s in a program are stored physically either as magnetic orientations of atoms in a hard drive or electrical charges in a flash memory cell. Those charges go into physical digital logic components like transistors to trigger signals in other transistors. Software doesn’t really exist as a thing separate from hardware, it’s just a useful abstraction for humans. Everything is an actual physical thing. All of your thoughts and memories are actually nerves in your brain connecting and interacting with each other physically through electrical and chemical interfaces. There are set levels about what voltage constitutes on or off. The 1’s and 0’s are always voltage levels. If you press a button on your keyboard it doesn’t send ones and zeroes which later becomes electrical signals, it sends an electrical signals which can be understood as a sequence of ones and zeroes. When your processor loads an instruction, it’s not just loading a sequence of ones and zeroes, flip flops are also being set to the voltage levels which 1 and 0 are used to represent. These models are just different levels of abstraction, there is no physical conversion from one to the other. That is, as you type it in the computer your typing generates a series of on/off bits that represent the code. Those bits are then converted into different sequences of on/off bits by a compiler and those on/off bits are stored as such on some storage medium. When the computer reads those bits back they come back as a bunch of on/off bits already. There’s no “conversion”. The closest thing to what you’re asking would be “the keyboard has a little chip in it that says when the ‘A’ key is pressed you should send this sequence of on/off bits to represent that”. After that point it’s all just voltages that represent on/off bits. In reality, there’s never an abstract binary bit separate from the physical electronic representations. We just call them 0 and 1 because it’s a convenient formalism for working with digital logic. But it’s electricity all the way down. Computers are basically a bunch of light switches hooked to little spring loaded motors hooked to more light switches. The only exception are things like HDDs and optical drives; with those, you got a little thing that converts the “light switch” positions into magnetic fields aligned one way or another for the HDD, and as dark and reflective spots on optical drives, and vice-versa. There’s no “it’s digital here and now it’s analog here.” It’s always analog; there’s no such thing as digital in the actual physical world, that’s merely an abstraction. Everything stored in the computer (or at least in volatile storage, i.e. memory) is a series of voltages. If you had a probe small enough and sensitive enough you could place it at any point in the circuit and look at the voltage level and determine whether that level represented a 1 or a 0. Everything happens by switching those voltages around. Everything in a computer is clocked. There is an oscillator in there, in fact many, that trigger everything to happen. Its just like the tick of a clock but generally happening at very fast speeds. Upon a clock tick the voltage states of each bit in each register of connected to a particular operation are passed through a series of gates to complete the desired operation. That operation is determined by the states of other registers through again a long chain of logic gates. Multiply this by a few thousand and you have a computer.
Machine code, assembly and higher languages are stored in voltage states in registers, ram and flash memory. So they are always electrical. Compiling and assembling are just translating human readable code into numerical operators, constants and memory addresses. Effectively its just rearranging it in memory into a format where the computer can execute it. Machine language doesn’t get converted to physical voltages. Physical voltages are the fundamental thing. It is more accurate to say that physical voltages get interpreted as machine language/0’s and 1’s. The element that does this interpretation is a transistor. It is what fundamentally decides what is a 0 and what is a 1. The transistor has 3 connections and acts as a switch. One of the inputs is a control input and depending on the voltage on the control input, current is either allowed to pass between other inputs or current is blocked (it basically varies the resistance between the other 2 connections dramatically). There is some voltage below which the transistor will easily pass current (say 2.1V). We interpret voltages in the 0-2.1V range as a 0. There is some higher voltage where the transistor will block almost all current (say 2.6V). We interpret voltages in the 2.6-3.3V range as a 1. In between voltages (2.1-2.6V) are not allowed and the system is designed to not produce them. There are other transistors that invert this logic and pass current when the control is a low voltage and block current when the control is a high voltage. Of course, I’m vastly simplifying things to focus on just the most fundamental part. These transistors determine what physical voltages are 0 and which are 1. For the understanding of the machine language code, that happens at a higher level of abstraction. Basically, networks of transistors are designed that create the correct 0/1 output pattern given the 0/1 input pattern of the parameters and the 0/1 input pattern of the machine instruction. There’s a whole host of processes and tools that go into creating the machine language itself, that is the binary encoding stored on the computer. Then there’s the CPU and its functions. The there’s the execution of the program within the operating system and how the different hardware devices can affect the program execution. Then there’s the hardware itself and how its connected together and operates. None of those act in isolation either, they are all inter-dependent and influence each other. Consider the Altair 8800, the grand-daddy of all microcomputers. See ? No keyboard. This was programmed by physically toggling the switches, actually opening and closing electrical circuits. Inputting and outputting those programs in the form of a series of letters you can type on a keyboard and read on a screen came later. Each letter on your keyboard is an electrical switch, and how keystrokes are handled to change the state of a memory cell is a matter of basic electronics. Moving further back in time, see the Eniac, generally presented as the first programmable computer. Then, programming meant physically rearranging the cabling. Even more physical, Konrad Zuse’s Z1 through Z4 were programmable and electromechanical. Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, for which Lady Ada Lovelace invented the concept of programming and wrote the first computer program ever. MIPS instruction set architecture in a hardware description language.
A program in machine language is stored as patterns of ones and zeroes and is read into main memory from storage. There it is also stored patterns of ones and zeroes (high and low voltages). The magic is something called an instruction decoder. This fetches the information at the location pointed to by the program counter and then decodes the instruction and executes it. This interpretation can be anything from a micro machine of its own (with its own program) to direct implementation using logic gates. Execution will then enable particular logic to act on the data as directed. For example if we have a register containing the value 0 and we want to increment it, at the low level the CPU must be told to load the register into the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) and the apply the signal to say increment the value then to take to result and write it to the register. So, in effect three operations must take place (read, calculate and write) and we must be careful not to take the result of the ALU before the calculation is complete. Often there is something called a clock in the background to help keep things synchronised and to enable things to communicate at the right time. This would enable the right components to communicate over a common bus. The last thing that would happen is that the program counter would be incremented (using a similar mechanism) so that it points to the next instruction. Program exists on storage device Which has been compiled down to machine code. Program is loaded into memory which is when the voltages are established Flip-Flop in electronics . The machine code is comprised of Discrete instructions for a specific processor. In an instruction, the Opcode is what dictates the operation the processor will perform. Resistor Ladder . Using an 8 bit PIC, start writing some C code and eventually work your way down to assembly. With some simple tools like a multimeter and/or an oscilloscope you’ll be able to work out what’s going on. When people say 1s and 0s, what we’re really referring to are logic levels, where a 0 refers to a ‘low’ level and a 1 refers to a ‘high’ level. Since these are just voltage levels, the computer can recognize and operate on these natively. Also, a computer program is usually stored as 0s and 1s before compiling as well, as everything on your computer will be stored that way. However, after compiling, you will get a file filled with what is called machine code. Machine code is a list of binary instructions (as opposed to text like the original source code) that can be directly interpreted by the circuitry in the processor.
How the Computer Reads Voltages and how does a computer interpret read transistors that are on or off?
Computers are digital. Digital means we build components from “analog” hardware, like transistors, resistors, etc., which work with two states: On and Off. Usually we can do this by employing reversed Z-Diodes, which are not conductive until a certain voltage threshold is reached. That way, you either have 0V or <threshold>+ Volt. The resulting components are called “logical gates”. Some examples for gates include “AND”, “OR”, “NAND”, “XOR”, etc. With these gates, your computer hardware can be built easily in a way which allows for storing states (e.g. NAND flip-flops) and do logical things, like mathematic computations. One storage-place can save the state of either 0 or 1. This state is called “bit”. Bits work in the binary system. Let me translate that for you to our widely used decimal system:
In order to do some processing, your computer uses a clock generator with a very high frequency. The frequency is usually one of the selling points of a CPU, like 4GHz. It means the clock generator alternates between logical 0 and 1 ca. 4,000,000,000 times a second. The signal from the clock generator is used to transfer information through your logical gates and in order to give them time to do their thing. Logical gates do not provide instant calculations, because even electromagnetic alterations (important! It’s not the electrons which have to travel fast) have to travel the distance and need a certain time to do so. With the help of the logical gates, a computer is able to pump your data from memory into your CPU. Inside the CPU, there usually are one to several ALUs. ALU stands for Arithmetic Logical Unit and describes a circuit (out of logical gates) which is able to understand a certain combination of bits and do calculations on them. One ALU usually has an input of several bits which are filled in sequentially, meaning the bit stream is pumped into the one side of the ALU until the input is “full”. Then the ALU is signalled that it should process the input.
Let’s take a look at a simple example. The example ALU can work on 8 bit and the input sequence is 11001000. One word is 3 bits long (a “word” is the length of a data entity). The first thing the ALU needs is a command set (“opcodes”), for example ADD (sum of two numbers), DEC (decrease), INC (increment data),… Those commands are evaluated via a simple logic. For the sake of simplicity, let’s say the command is encoded in 2 bit (which sums up to 3 commands + NOOP (no operation; do nothing)) which are stored in the first two bits of the input sequence (usually an ALU has a separate opcode input). Let’s say the ALU knows all of the mentioned commands above:
Since the first two bits in our sequence are 11, the operation for the computation is “INC”. The ALU can then proceed to increment the number which follows. Incrementing only takes one input: the number to increment. So the ALU takes the first word after the command (001) and increments it via mathematical logic (also implemented with logical gates). The result then is 010 which is pushed out of the ALU and then saved in a result memory location. But how can we do logical things in addition to math? The thing is that there are a few more commands which allow more logical operations, like jump or jump if equal. Those commands have to be executed by another part of the CPU: a Control Unit. It does the data fetching and executes certain memory related operations, but all in all is quite similar to how the ALU works. By manipulating data and storing it in well defined places or pushing it to certain busses, the data can be used in other places, for example it can be sent to the PCI controller, then it can be consumed by the graphics card and sent to the monitor in order to display an image. It can be sent to a USB controller which stores it on your USB drive. It all depends on the operations and the content of certain memory locations, which are used by logical gates to decide stuff. First of all, your code is always translated into machine codes (it does not matter, if it is compiled to machine code, or if an interpreter translates it). Machine code is nothing more than a sequence of specific signals on a bus. Chips with access to that bus will usually use a clock-signal to trigger transistors, which then allow the signals on the bus to enter the chip. Your signal itself will then trigger more transistors inside the chip to change their state, resulting in a new signal on the output side. That signal could be a write-operation on a memory chip. The clock-signal will then allow other chips to read that output. A clock signal usually comes from the CPU. CPU vendors advertise their CPUs with the speed of the internal CPU clocks. For example, if you have an Intel processor with 3.4GHz, the internal clock will output an on-off-signal with a frequency of 3.4GHz. That’s it. There are other chips in your computer, which have their own clocks (for example the RAM), though. That’s why you have to make sure that your parts are compatible, or they won’t be able to sync.
Take a look at this rough CPU schematic. See the clock generator inputting a CLK signal into the CPU? That’s what triggers the read/write operations from/to the internal bus, which results in your code being read, triggering internal transistors and even telling others when to read from the CPU. Which leads to one sad truth: CPU outputs cannot be
read as soon as they are ready, they always have a certain amount of time to finish and even if they finish earlier, everything has to wait for the set amount of time >.< It’s easier that way, though!
Logic in computer science covers the overlap between the field of logic and that of computer science. The topic can essentially be divided into three main areas: Theoretical foundations and analysis. Use of computer technology to aid logicians. Use of concepts from logic for computer applications. Data.
Human-Computer Interaction (interfaces) – Data Protection
Side Effects modifies some state or has an observable interaction with calling functions or the outside world.
Computer Virus is a malware that, when executed, replicates by reproducing itself or infecting other programs by modifying them.
Computer Programming is the craft of writing useful, maintainable, and extensible source code which can be interpreted or compiled by a computing system to perform a meaningful task.
What are some of the things that I can do with Computer Programming Languages?
What kind of problems can I solve?
You can create computer software, create a website, or fix computers that have software problems. You can create an App that saves time, increases productivity, increases quality, increases your abilities and creativity, and also helps you learn more about yourself and the world around you. You could even create Algorithms for Artificial Intelligence, or write instructions for Robotics. You can even make your own Computer Operating System, or learn to modify and improve an OS using C, C++ programming languages. You can make your computer run better by fixing Registry errors. You can also learn to create and manage databases.
Block of Code is something that has a set of instructions to perform a particular task or tasks, or calculations, or sending data to specified places) Modules, Routines and Subroutines, Methods, Functions. Algorithm.
Block Programming is a section of code which is grouped together.
Block Code is any member of the large and important family of error-correcting codes that encode data in blocks.
Code::Blocks is a free, open-source cross-platform IDE that supports multiple compilers including GCC, Clang and Visual C++.
Compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code. The most common reason for converting source code is to create an executable program.
Coding is Love. Learning to Code is about improving life. You help people to learn things easier, you help people to accomplish goals and tasks faster. Coding helps people save time, energy and resources. So people will have more time to improve life for others, as well as have more time to relax and enjoy life. Coding is Love.”
Programmer is a person who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer’s primary computer language (Assembly, COBOL, C, C++, C#, Java, Lisp, Python, etc.) is often prefixed to these titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with web. A range of occupations, including: software developer, web developer, mobile applications developer, embedded firmware developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst, while they do involve programming, also require a range of other skills. The use of the simple term programmer for these positions is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory oversimplification.
Computer Programming is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. Programming involves activities such as analysis, developing understanding, generating algorithms, verification of requirements of algorithms including their correctness and resources consumption, and implementation (commonly referred to as coding) of algorithms in a target programming language. Source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic. Related tasks include testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code, implementation of the build system, and management of derived artifacts such as machine code of computer programs. These might be considered part of the programming process, but often the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of source code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices.
Computer Program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function and typically executes the program’s instructions in a central processing unit. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. A part of a computer program that performs a well-defined task is known as an algorithm. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software.
Things that you don’t want to do using Computer Programming Languages.
You don’t want to create pop-up adds. You don’t want to create computer viruses or malware. You don’t want to steal from people by hacking their computer. You don’t want to create stupid video games that wastes time, people and resources, unless you want to make a game that actually teaches you valuable knowledge and Skills. Though games are fun, and I do like playing video games once in a while, video games still have their problems.
Game Programming Patterns
Asynchronous Programming is a programming paradigm that facilitates fast and responsive user interfaces. Ability to improve the overall throughput on a multi-core system. The asynchronous programming model in Java provides a consistent programming model to write programs that support asynchrony. Provides a non-blocking, event-driven programming model. This programming model leverages the multiple cores in your system to provide parallelization by using multiple CPU cores to execute the tasks, thus increasing the application’s throughput. Note that throughput is a measure of the amount of work done in unit time. In this programming paradigm, a unit of work would execute separately from the main application thread and notify the calling thread about its execution state: success, in progress or failure. We need asynchrony to eliminate the blocking model. In essence, the asynchronous programming model can use the same thread to process multiple requests without any request blocking the thread. “If AP is used correctly, interfaces will continually improve”.
Pair Programming is an agile software development technique in which two programmers work together at one workstation. One, the driver, writes code while the other, the observer or navigator, reviews each line of code as it is typed in. The two programmers switch roles frequently.
Profiling Programming is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. Most commonly, profiling information serves to aid program optimization. Profiling is achieved by instrumenting either the program source code or its binary executable form using a tool called a profiler (or code profiler). Profilers may use a number of different techniques, such as event-based, statistical, instrumented, and simulation methods.
Data-Driven Programming is a programming paradigm in which the program statements describe the data to be matched and the processing required rather than defining a sequence of steps to be taken. Standard examples of data-driven languages are the text-processing languages sed and AWK, where the data is a sequence of lines in an input stream – these are thus also known as line-oriented languages – and pattern matching is primarily done via regular expressions or line numbers.
Programming Style is a set of rules or guidelines used when writing the source code for a computer program. It is often claimed that following a particular programming style will help programmers to read and understand source code conforming to the style, and help to avoid introducing errors.
Multiprocessing refers to processing of multiple processes at same time by multiple CPUs. Multiprogramming keeps several programs in main memory at the same time and execute them concurrently utilizing single CPU.
Conditional Programming are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false. Apart from the case of branch predication, this is always achieved by selectively altering the control flow based on some condition.
Exception Handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs or computer hardware mechanisms.
Command–Query Separation is a principle of imperative computer programming that states that every method should either be a command that performs an action, or a query that returns data to the caller, but not both. In other words, Asking a question should not change the answer. More formally, methods should return a value only if they are referentially transparent and hence possess no side effects.
Structured Programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of subroutines, block structures, for and while loops—in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement which could lead to “spaghetti code” causing difficulty to both follow and maintain.
Object-Oriented Programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object’s procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of “this” or “self”). In OOP, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another. There is significant diversity of OOP languages, but the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes, which typically also determine their type.
Method Overriding is a language feature that allows a subclass or child class to provide a specific implementation of a method that is already provided by one of its superclasses or parent classes. The implementation in the subclass overrides (replaces) the implementation in the superclass by providing a method that has same name, same parameters or signature, and same return type as the method in the parent class. The version of a method that is executed will be determined by the object that is used to invoke it. If an object of a parent class is used to invoke the method, then the version in the parent class will be executed, but if an object of the subclass is used to invoke the method, then the version in the child class will be executed. Some languages allow a programmer to prevent a method from being overridden.
Association in object-oriented programming defines a relationship between classes of objects that allows one object instance to cause another to perform an action on its behalf. This relationship is structural, because it specifies that objects of one kind are connected to objects of another and does not represent behavior. In generic terms, the causation is usually called “sending a message”, “invoking a method” or “calling a member function” to the controlled object. Concrete implementation usually requires the requesting object to invoke a method or member function using a reference or pointer to the memory location of the controlled object. The objects that are related via the association are considered to act in a role with respect to the association, if object’s current state in the active situation allows the other associated objects to use the object in the manner specified by the role. A role can be used to distinguish two objects of the same class when describing its use in the context of the association. A role describes the public aspects of an object with respect to an Association.
Method in computer programming is a procedure associated with a message and an object. An object is made up of data and behavior, which form the interface that an object presents to the outside world. Data is represented as properties of the object and behavior as methods. For example, a Window object would have methods such as open and close, while its state (whether it is opened or closed) would be a property.
Semaphore Programming is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multiprogramming operating system. A trivial semaphore is a plain variable that is changed (for example, incremented or decremented, or toggled) depending on programmer-defined conditions. The variable is then used as a condition to control access to some system resource.
Expression-Oriented Programming Language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value. The typical exceptions are macro definitions, preprocessor commands, and declarations, which expression-oriented languages often treat as statements rather than expressions. Some expression-oriented languages introduce a void return type to be yielded by expressions that merely cause side-effects.
Thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system. The implementation of threads and processes differs between operating systems, but in most cases a thread is a component of a process. Multiple threads can exist within one process, executing concurrently and sharing resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources. In particular, the threads of a process share its executable code and the values of its variables at any given time. Algorithms.
Event Computing is an action or occurrence recognized by software that may be handled by the software. Computer events can be generated or triggered by the system, by the user or in other ways.
Event Dispatching Thread is a background thread used in Java to process events from the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) graphical user interface event queue.
Message Queue and mailboxes are software-engineering components used for inter-process communication (IPC), or for inter-thread communication within the same process. They use a queue for messaging – the passing of control or of content. Group communication systems provide similar kinds of functionality.
In enterprise messaging systems (EMS), the Event Queue (or Queues if running in more than one instance) is a queue of events (or asynchronous messages ) that is waiting to be processed by the receiving program. Everyone Wants to Win, Not Everyone Knows How. event management. Event Router.
The DoEvents function surrenders execution of the macro so that the operating system can process other events.
As a Web Developer, I write the code and computer language for machines, And these machines, or servers, then translates this information, and then delivers my information in the desired format to the user, who’s using a web browser on another machine. I organize information and knowledge into a folder, then I upload this folder to server that makes this folder available to people all over the world 24 hours a day, the ULR is name of the folder. Because millions of people do this everyday, we now have more knowledge and information then any other time in history. Enlightenment on a grand sale, but only for the few who utilize this knowledge to it’s fullest potential. You can say that the Internet is a level playing field, but it’s only a level playing field if you are experienced enough. And since our education system is terribly inadequate, the majority of people will not be able to fully utilize the internet, thus most people will never receive all the benefits, and never become enlightened, for now anyway. But when we finally improve education, people will become intelligent enough to solve every problem on earth. In the beginning it took me a long time to go beyond the page view to code view, because I failed to learn the computer languages and codes that tells the machines, or the servers, what to do. Knowing how a website works is great, but knowing why it all works is even better, because now you can understand it more, and possibly improve it so that it can be more effective and even more efficient. The servers have the ability to understand my directions (in the form of code or language) and then send them to the user. I tell the machine, and then the machine transmits this information to you. We really don’t need the machine to communicate, but it makes communication a lot easier, a lot more efficient and a lot more effective. But this reliance on this middle man (called the machine) worries me. We need to teach everyone how to communicate without technology, so that we never lose our connections with each other, or lose our connections to our most valuable knowledge and information that we need to survive. I can talk more clearly to a machine then a human. Because a machine, 99.9% of the time, understands my communications. And it’s not that the machine is more intelligent then a human, it’s that the human has not yet learned how to use language effectively, which is a failure of our education system.
Hello World! Processing is a documentary on creative coding that explores the role that ideas such as process, experimentation and algorithm play in this creative field featuring artists, designers and code enthusiasts. Based on a series of interviews to some of the leading figures of the Processing open programming platform community, the documentary is built itself as a continuous stream of archived references, projects and concepts shared by this community.
Famous Coders – Women Programmers
Margaret Hamilton on the right, was the lead software engineer of the Apollo Project, she stands next to the code she wrote by hand and that was used to take humanity to the moon. .
Katherine Johnson graduated from high school at 14 and college at 18 at a time when African-Americans often did not go beyond the eighth grade, she used her amazing facility with geometry to calculate Alan Shepard’s flight path and took the Apollo 11 crew to the moon to orbit it, land on it, and return safely to Earth.
Hidden Figures is a 2016 American biographical drama film about African American female mathematicians who worked at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) during the Space Race.
Alan Emtage, a black technologist who invented ARCHIE, the first Internet Search Engine in 1989. ARCHIE can search an estimated 2.1 million files located at over 1200 sites worldwide within minutes indexing FTP servers.
Mercury 13 was the thirteen American women who, as part of a privately funded program, underwent the same physiological screening tests as the astronauts selected by NASA on April 9, 1959 for Project Mercury. However, the Mercury 13 were denied to be part of NASA’s astronaut program, so they never flew in space and never met as a group. In the 1960’s some of the women lobbied the White House and Congress for inclusion of women in the astronaut program, even appearing before a congressional committee. But because men were so ignorant and prejudice at that time, they did not allow women to train to be astronauts. But on June 16th, 1963, Russian Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to have flown in space, having been selected from more than 400 applicants and five finalists to pilot Vostok 6. This was another slap in the face to Americas arrogance and ignorance. It was not until 20 years later that America sent the first American women in space.
Sally Ride was an engineer and physicist who joined NASA in 1978 and became the first American woman in space in 1983. She Died July 23, 2012 from pancreatic cancer at the aged of 61. Before her space flight she gave thanks to the Mercury 13 for their courage for pursuing their dreams to become astronauts. They all attended the flight: Gene Nora Jessen, Wally Funk, Jerrie Cobb, Jerri Truhill, Sarah Rutley, Myrtle Cagle and Bernice Steadman.
STS-63 on February 9th, 1995, marked the first time a Space Shuttle mission had a female pilot, Eileen Collins, the first EVAs for both a UK born astronaut Michael Foale and a US astronaut of African heritage Bernard A. Harris, Jr. and it also carried out the successful deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-204 platform, along with the scheduled rendezvous and flyaround of Mir, in preparation for STS-71, the first mission to dock with Mir.
Ada Lovelace was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage’s proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognize that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and published the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is sometimes regarded as the first to recognize the full potential of a “computing machine” and the first computer. programmer. (12/10/1815 – 11/27/1852). Her mother’s obsession with rooting out any of the insanity of which she accused Byron was one of the reasons that Ada was taught mathematics from an early age. She was privately schooled in mathematics and science by William Frend, William King,[a] and Mary Somerville, the noted 19th-century researcher and scientific author. Doron Swade, a specialist on history of computing known for his work on Babbage, analyzed four claims about Lovelace during a lecture on Babbage’s analytical engine: She was a mathematical genius. She made an influential contribution to the analytical engine. She was the first computer programmer. She was a prophet of the computer age.
Astronomer Nancy Grace Roman, known as the “Mother” of Hubble, died at 93 in 2018. Roman was one of the first female executives at NASA, where she served as the agency’s first chief of astronomy. Roman retired from NASA in 1979.
Emma Haruka Iwao, who works in high performance computing and programming language communities at Google, calculated 31 Trillion Digits Of Pi or 31,415,926,535,897 digits of pi – crushing a 2016 record by trillions of digits, using a supercomputer that used y-cruncher, an application that anyone can download, running on 25 Google Cloud virtual machines. The process took about four months and about 170 terabytes of data to complete. Roughly equivalent to the amount of data in the entire Library of Congress print collections.
Hypatia was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire. She was a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy. She is the first female mathematician whose life is reasonably well recorded. Hypatia was renowned in her own lifetime as a great teacher and a wise counselor. She is known to have written a commentary on Diophantus’s thirteen-volume Arithmetica, which may survive in part, having been interpolated into Diophantus’s original text, and another commentary on Apollonius of Perga’s treatise on conic sections, which has not survived. Many modern scholars also believe that Hypatia may have edited the surviving text of Ptolemy’s Almagest, based on the title of her father Theon’s commentary on Book III of the Almagest. (born c. 350–370; died 415 AD).